Most well log and drilling data in the oil and gas industry is trapped within tapes and disk files of ancient and hard to access data formats like DLIS, LAS, LIS, BIT, XTF, WITS, ASC and SPWLA.

These formats represents orphaned  technologies and are outdated in all possible ways. Their syntax is overly complex, convoluted and awkward, available support software is limited, software tools are rare and documentation is poor or nonexistent.

But still: These are the main storage and communication media for well logging information in the 2019. The amount of data is immense and growing, as is the aggregate cost of maintaining and utilizing this information.


The JSON Well Log Format

The JSON Well Log Format is a modern well log format designed for the future requirements of simplicity, compatibility, speed, massive storage, massive transmission, cloud computing and big data analytics. It overcome many of the deficiencies of existing well log formats.

  • Based on the JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) open standard (RFC 8259 and RFC 7493)
  • Non-proprietary
  • Text-based, lightweight and human readable
  • Full UTF-8 support according to the JSON standard
  • Built-in no-value support
  • Simple syntax consisting of collections of name/value pairs (objects) and ordered lists of values (arrays)
  • Compact type system
  • Quantity and unit support based on the Unit of Measure Standard from Energistics
  • Date and time support through the ISO 8601 standard
  • Well log semantics based on a limited set of well known keys to ensures consistency, compatibility and efficient processing
  • Supports depth and time based logging data
  • Supports single value and multi-dimensional (image) curves
  • Fast: The simple syntax and streaming nature makes parsing extremely efficient
  • Omnipresent parsers and generators for just about any system environment available
  • Existing ecosystem of NoSQL cluster database support with high volume storage, search and indexing, distribution, scalability and high performance analytics


Example

A JSON Well Log file consists of one or more log sets each containing a log header, curve definitions and the corresponding measurement data. This example contains a single log set with two one-dimensional curves:

[
  {
    "header": {
      "name": "EcoScope Data",
      "well": "35/12-6S",
      "field": "Fram",
      "date": "2019-06-14",
      "operator": "Logtek Petroleum",
      "startIndex": 2907.79,
      "endIndex": 2907.84,
      "step": 0.01
    },
    "curves": [
      {
        "name": "MD",
        "description": "Measured depth",
        "quantity": "length",
        "unit": "m",
        "valueType": "float",
        "dimensions": 1
      },
      {
        "name": "A40H",
        "description": "Attenuation resistivity 40 inch",
        "quantity": "electrical resistivity",
        "unit": "ohm.m",
        "valueType": "float",
        "dimensions": 1
      }
    ],
    "data": [
      [2907.79, 29.955],
      [2907.80, 28.892],
      [2907.81, 27.868],
      [2907.82, 31.451],
      [2907.83, 28.080],
      [2907.84, 27.733]
    ]
  }
]

The JSON syntax can be efficiently parsed in any programming environment available. The well log semantics must still be understood by the client code, but this is far simpler to do navigating in-memory data structures in the programming environment at hand, instead of dealing with external disk resources of obscure proprietary formats.


Data types

The JSON Well Log Format defines the following data types for header data and curve data:

Type Description Examples
float Floating point decimal numbers 10.2, 0.014, 3.1e-108, 2.13e12, 0.0, null
integer Integer decimal numbers 10, 42, 1000038233, -501, null
string Text strings "error", "final depth", "message 402", "", null
boolean Logic states true, false, null
datetime Date/time specifications according to ISO 8601 "2019-12-19", "2010-02-18T16:23:48,3-06:00", null

Numbers must contain values corresponding to a double-precision 64-bit IEEE 754 binary format value. Integer values has the same internal representation in JavaScript as floats and should be limited to 52 bits (+/-9007199254740991) to ensure accuracy.

Also, numeric values that cannot be represented as sequences of digits (such as Infinity and NaN) must be avoided.


Log header

The log header contains metadata that describes the overall logging operation and consists of any JSON objects and arrays that the producing entity find necessary and sufficient.

However, in order to efficiently communicate metadata across disparate systems and companies the common properties listed below are defined as well known. Metadata outside this set has low informational value and is in general not fit for further processing.

Key Type Description
name string Log name
description string Log description
well string Well name
wellbore string Wellbore name
field string Field name
country string Country of operation
date datetime Logging date
operator string Operator company name
serviceCompany string Service company name
runNumber string Run number
source string Source system or process of this log
startIndex According to index value type Value of the first index. Unit according to index curve.
endIndex According to index value type Value of the last index. Unit according to index curve.
step According to index value type Distance between indices if regularly sampled. Unit according to index curve. If log is time based, milliseconds assumed.

All header data are optional, including the header object itself.


Curve definition

The following keys are used for curve definitions:

Key Type Description
name string Curve name or mnemonic. Mandatory. Non-null.
description string Curve description. Optional.
quantity string Curve quantity such as length, pressure, force etc. Optional.
unit string Unit of measurement such as m, ft, bar, etc. Optional.
valueType string Curve value type: float, integer, string, datetime or boolean. Non-null. Optional. float assumed if not present.
dimensions integer Number of dimensions. [1,>. Non-null. Optional. 1 assumed if not present.

Quantities and units should follow the Unit of Measure Standard from Energistics. To ease transition from legacy formats this is no requirement.

In addition to the listed, clients may add any number of custom curve definition entries in any form supported by the JSON syntax, but as for header data in general this is not recommended.


Curve data

Curve data are specified in arrays for each index entry, with one entry per curve. If a curve is multi-dimensional, the entry is itself an array of subentries, one per dimension.

Curve values are according to the value type defined for the curve, or null for no-values. The index curve is always the first curve listed, and must not contain no-values. It is advised that the index curve is continuously increasing or decreasing.


Transition objects

To support convertion of legacy formats to JSON a generic table object has been suggested. The table has a set of attributes and it contains a number of named objects with one or more values for each attribute. The table is able to represent metadata from existing well log formats in a consistent and simple manner:

    "name": {
      "attributes": ["attr1", "attr2", "attr3", ... "attrn"],
      "objects": [
          "object1": [v11, v12, v13, ... v1n],
          "object2": [v21, v22, v23, ... v2n],
          "object3": [v31, v32, v33, ... v3n],
          :
          "objectm": [vm1, vm2, vm3, ... vmn]
      ]
    }
           

Metedata in LAS files exists as parameters within a section and has the following form:

    <name>.<unit> <value> : <description>
            

A typical example might be:

    ~PARAMETER INFORMATION
    #MNEM.UNIT    VALUE                      DESCRIPTION
    #---- -----   --------------------       ------------------------
    RUN .   1A        : RUN NUMBER
    PDAT.   MSL       : Permanent Datum
    EPD .C3  0.000000 : Elevation of Permanent Datum above Mean Sea Level
    LMF .   DF        : Logging Measured From (Name of Logging Elevation Reference)
    APD .M  30.000000 : Elevation of Depth Reference (LMF) above Permanent Datum
           

Using the table object above, this should convert to JSON as follows:

    "PARAMETER INFORMATION": {
      "attributes": ["value", "unit", "description"],
      "objects": [
        "RUN":  ["1A",  null, "RUN NUMBER"],
        "PDAT": ["MSL", null, "Permanent Datum"],
        "EPD":  [0.0,   "C3", "Elevation of Permanent Datum above Mean Sea Level"],
        "LMF":  ["DF",  null, "Logging Measured From (Name of Logging Elevation Reference)"],
        "APD":  [30.0,  "M",  "Elevation of Depth Reference (LMF) above Permanent Datum"]
      ]
    }
            

Metedata in DLIS files exists as sets. This is a named entity with a number of attributes and a number of objects with one or more values for each of the attributes. A DLIS set has a binary representation within a DLIS file, but it can be viewed as a matrix as follows:

    setName
             attr1  attr2  attr3  ... attrn
    ----------------------------------------
    object1    v11    v12    v13        v1n
    object2    v21    v22    v23        v2n
    object3    v31    v32    v33        v3n
       :
    objectm    vm1    vm2    vm3        vmn
    ----------------------------------------
            

A typical example might be:

    HzEquipment
              LENGTH   TRADEMARK-NAME SERIAL-NUMBER WEIGHT
    ---------------------------------------------------------
    APWD      0.0 in   APWD25-AA      241408        0.0 kg
    ARDC      224.8 in ARC9D-BA       738           1270.0 kg
    MSSD900   14.5 in  SZR            FC-71545      68.0 kg
    ---------------------------------------------------------
            

Using the generic table structure, this will convert to JSON as follows:

    "HzEquipment": {
      "attributes": ["LENGTH", "TRADEMARK-NAME", "SERIAL-NUMBER", "WEIGHT"],
      "objects": [
        "APWD": ["0.0 in", "APWD25-AA", "241408", "0.0 kg"],
        "ARDC": ["224.8 in", "ARC9D-BA", "738", "1270.0 kg"],
        "MSSD900": ["14.5 in", "SZR", "FC-71545", "68.0 kg"]
      ]
    }
            

Writing JSON well logs

Writing JSON well logs can be done in two different formats: condensed or pretty. The condensed format should be without whitespace and newlines and should be used for transmission between computers only.

For well logs that may possibly be viewed by humans the pretty format should always be used. This format should contain whitespace and indentation that emphasizes the logical structure of the content. For the data section in particular, arrays of curve data for each index must be written horizontally and with commas between entries aligned:


    "data": [
      [828420, 282.589,  8.6657, 2.202, 2.222, [1.759, 2.31469,  1.33991E-3, 3.75839], 0.52435, ... ],
      [828480, 286.239,  9.6601, 2.277, 2.297, [2.219, 2.31189,        null,    null], 0.52387, ... ],
      [828540, 276.537, 10.6638, 2.309,  null, [2.267, 2.29509, -3.67117E-3,    null], 0.53936, ... ],
      [828600, 264.325, 10.6545, 2.324,  null, [2.110, 2.27902, -7.77555E-3, 3.67927], 0.55439, ... ],
      [828660, 245.938,  9.6937, 2.333, 2.356, [1.525, 2.26512, -1.17965E-2, 3.68386], 0.56211, ... ],
      :
      :
    ]
            


Open source code

Access libraries, example code and a great variety of technologies associated with the JSON Well Log Format are available at our repository at GitHub.


Examples - The Volve data set

Thanks to Equinor all subsurface and production data from the Volve field on the Norwegian continental shelf has been disclosed and made available to the public. It can be downloaded from http://data.equinor.com.

The dataset contains about 15GB of well log data in about 1000 different DLIS, LIS, LAS, ASC and SPWLA files. This part has been converted to the JSON Well Log Format by Petroware and is available here:

     Volve/